Thursday, March 22, 2007

Truth In History - Temple Destruction

While archeological excavations continue in Ayodhya to ascertain whether a Hindu temple existed at that site, it is important to revisit how this contentious issue (temple destruction during the Muslim rule) has been presented to our people in the past. Did our historians adhere to the truth? Were they motivated by political considerations? Or did they deliberately attempt to commit a fraud on the Indian people and the Hindus in particular?

History is the story of the past. It is man's attempt to decipher what happened hundreds or even thousands of years ago. In this endeavor, he has had to rely on a varied array of clues like archeological findings, notations on rock edicts and oblique references; that is mostly indirect evidence. In essence, man has had to put circumstantial evidence together to come to a logical conclusion. Despite there being a methodology to this study of the past, history has never been and never will be a perfect subject like mathematics or physics. It is to a great extent dependent on human interpretation of findings. And human conclusions are apt to be influenced by a host of factors ranging from ethnic background to one's political beliefs. Therefore, for anybody to claim that his or her interpretation of events is the gospel truth is shortsighted and narrow-minded. But this is precisely what a certain group of historians have done in post-independent India.

Indian history for the last 50 years or so has been the preserve of historians who were Marxists by conviction and who had come to occupy positions of influence in India's elite Universities. These historians have callously distorted past events and interpreted history to suit their political agenda. Their efforts were not an honest attempt at history writing but a warped exercise in social engineering. Nowhere is this as evident as in the case of the temple desecrations that occurred during the Muslim invasion of India. Opponents (even when evidence was forthcoming) were dubbed as fundamentalists and their views effectively suppressed.

A preface to an article on temple desecration which appeared in Frontline (Jan 2001) is a clear example of the vicious propaganda carried out against anybody trying to ascertain the truth or to propose a differing point of view: “The ideologues of the Hindu Right have, through a manipulation of pre-modern history and a tendentious use of source material and historical data, built up a dangerously plausible picture of fanaticism, vandalism and villainy on the part of the Indo-Muslim conquerors and rulers. Part of the ideological and political argument of the Hindu Right is the assertion that for about five centuries from the thirteenth, Indo-Muslim states were driven by a 'theology of iconoclasm' -- not to mention fanaticism, lust for plunder, and uncompromising hatred of Hindu religion and places of worship. In this illuminating and nuanced essay on temple desecration and Indo-Muslim states, which Frontline offers its readers in two parts, the historian Richard M. Eaton presents important new insights and meticulously substantiated conclusions on what happened or is likely to have happened in pre-modern India.” Ironically, the use of the words “likely to have happened” in the preceding sentence exposes the frailty of the argument despite the arrogant righteousness of the tone.

During the Muslim invasion of India, which spanned over a thousand years, hundreds, nay thousands of Hindu temples were destroyed. The vast number of temples destroyed as well as the malevolence with which the desecration of these institutions took place is ample testimony to the satanic nature of its perpetrators. The following excerpts illustrate the crudity of these actions.

John Keay, a British historian, in his recent book India had this to say about Mahmud of Ghazni's destruction of the Somnath Temple: “But what rankled even more than the loot and the appalling death toll was the satisfaction that Mahmud took in destroying the great gilded lingam. After stripping it of its gold, he personally laid into it with his sword. The bits were then sent back to Ghazni and incorporated into the steps of its new Jami Masjid, there to be humiliatingly trampled and perpetually defiled by the feet of the Muslim faithful.”

Khuswant Singh in his book We Indians avers: “Mahmud of Ghazni was only the first of a long line of Muslim idol-breakers. His example was followed by Mongols, Turks and Persians. They killed and destroyed in the name of Islam. Not a single Buddhist, Jain or Hindu temple in northern India escaped their iconoclastic zeal. Some temples were converted to mosques; idols and figurines had their noses, breasts or limbs lopped off; paintings were charred beyond recognition.”

What is even more perverse is the fact that these notorious acts were extolled proudly by Persian poets (including the great Persian poet Firdausi), who defined Mahmud as a paragon of Islamic virtue and a model for other sultans to emulate.

The actual number of temples destroyed during this dark period appears to be a point of contention. Hindu nationalists claim that over 60,000 temples were destroyed. Leftist historians (and their supporters) while disputing this figure are now willing to concede that there is proof that at least 80 temples were destroyed during this phase. So we now happen to agree upon the fact that at least 80 temples were destroyed by Muslim invaders. What was once considered to be a fantasy of Hindu chauvinists is now accepted as a reality.

A meticulous look at even this truncated list of desecrated temples is extremely revealing. There was hardly a prominent Hindu temple that was spared and there was hardly a Muslim ruler who did not indulge in this pastime. This list includes temples from all parts of India including the South. Further, each and every important Hindu temple appears to have been targeted. Somnath, Mathura, Banares, Madurai, Kalahasti, Puri, Pandarpur are but a few that appear on this list. Buddhist monasteries at Odantapuri, Vikramasila, and Nalanda in Bihar were also vandalised.

Initially, some historians claimed that such destructions never occurred. But now in the face of irrefutable evidence, these historians have concocted a medley of reasons as to why these destructions were justified. The ridiculousness of these arguments makes them incomprehensible to a sane mind. Nevertheless, let us evaluate each reason rationally to see whether they make sense.

Muslim rulers destroyed temples only during the initial invasion of a kingdom but did not do so when temples were under their jurisdiction.

This is one of the theories put forward to explain Mahmud Ghazni's dastardly deeds. Richard Eaton writing in Frontline states: “The Ghaznavid sultan never undertook the responsibility of actually governing any part of the subcontinent whose temples he wantonly plundered.”

As though this was enough justification for his deeds! Let me state categorically that the desecration of a temple whether it was during an invasion or not is still a desecration and does not in any way diminish the magnitude of the crime. However, for the sake of debate and in all fairness I am willing to test this theory, despite its obvious absurdity. The examples given below clearly belie the validity of this concept.

In 1478, when a Bahmani garrison in eastern Andhra mutinied, murdered its governor, and entrusted the fort to Bhimraj Oriyya, who until that point had been a loyal Bahmani client, the sultan personally marched to the site and, after a six-month siege, stormed the fort, destroyed its temple, and built a mosque on the site.
In 1659, Shivaji Bhonsle, the son of a loyal officer serving the Adil Shahi sultans of Bijapur, seized a government port on the northern Konkan coast and disrupted the flow of external trade to and from the capital. Responding to what it considered an act of treason, the government deputed a high-ranking officer, Afzal Khan, to punish the Maratha rebel. Before marching to confront Shivaji himself, however, the Bijapur general first proceeded to Tuljapur and desecrated a temple dedicated to the goddess Bhavani, to which Shivaji and his family had been praying.
In 1613, while at Pushkar, near Ajmer, Jahangir ordered the desecration of an image of Varaha that had been housed in a temple belonging to an uncle of Rana Amar of Mewar, the emperor's arch enemy.
In 1635, Shah Jahan destroyed the great temple at Orchha, which had been patronised by the father of Raja Jajhar Singh, a high-ranking Mughal officer who was at that time in open rebellion against the emperor.
In 1669, the emperor Aurangzeb ordered the destruction of the great Vishvanath temple in Banaras, which was in his domain. The reason: Shivaji's escape from Banaras had been facilitated by Jai Singh, the great grandson (not the son or the grandson) of Raja Man Singh, who may have built the Vishvanath temple. Jai Singh was not the son or the grandson but the great grandson of Raja Man Singh, who may (repeat, may) have built the temple and this was enough reason to destroy it. Is this logic? Can a sane man accept this?
In 1670, Aurangzeb ordered the destruction of Mathura's Keshava Deva temple and built an Islamic structure (`idgah) on its site. The reason: the leader of a local rebellion had been found near the city (not near the temple). Can this be a reason?
In the 17th century, Aurangzeb ordered an attack on the Bamiyan Buddhas in Afghanistan. To quote Rakhaldas Sengupta, the former head of an Indo-Afghan team for the restoration of the Bamiyan Buddhas, “Parts of the wooden frame were burned and there was damage to the upper part of the face and the lower lip and hands.”
All the above demolitions took place in the respective kingdoms of the Muslim rulers effectively negating the hypothesis that the Muslim rulers did not destroy temples in their domain.

Having failed to find ample proof for this convoluted theory, some historians went a step further. A sub-hypothesis was proposed: Muslim rulers destroyed temples in their domain only to discipline errant subordinates (as though it were justification enough) or to put down a rebellion in those areas.

Even this far-fetched explanation cannot pass muster. Did they punish disloyal Muslim officers in the same fashion? The answer is a resounding: No. Infractions short of rebellion normally resulted in demotions in rank, while serious crimes like treason were generally punished by execution, regardless of the perpetrator's religious affiliation. No evidence, however, suggests that ruling authorities attacked public monuments like mosques or Sufi shrines that had been patronized by disloyal or rebellious officers. Nor were such monuments desecrated when one Indo-Muslim kingdom conquered another and annexed its territories. This further proves beyond any doubt that Hindus and Hindu temples were specifically selected out for victimization.

In contrast there is not a single instance where an invading Hindu king destroyed or desecrated a mosque or meted out the same treatment to a mosque in his control.

I quote Richard Eaton from his article in Frontline, “When Hindu rulers established their authority over the territories of defeated Muslim rulers, they did not as a rule desecrate mosques or shrines, as, for example, when Shivaji established a Maratha kingdom on the ashes of Bijapur's former dominions in Maharashtra, or when Vijayanagara annexed the former territories of the Bahmanis or their successors. In fact, the rajas of Vijayanagara, as is well known, built their own mosques, evidently to accommodate the sizable number of Muslims employed in their armed forces.”

To recapitulate this bizarre train of reasoning: First these historians claim that no Hindu temples were destroyed. When this is disproved, they theorize that temples were demolished only by invading Muslim kings and no further destruction occurred when these temples came under their jurisdiction. When even that does not hold water, they go on to suggest that when destruction did occur in their kingdoms, it was to punish disloyal subordinates. But even that rationale has no grounds for justification.

Let us stop trying to find justifications (for this criminal conduct) where none exist. No amount of explanations is going to mitigate the gravity of these dastardly acts. Attempts to whitewash these crimes will only exacerbate the situation. When one denies that a crime has been committed, one perpetrates another crime against the victim. Let us be man enough to accept them for what they are: hate crimes, plain and simple.

What is the express reason for documenting these ghastly deeds? Is it to hold the present day Muslims for the wrongdoing of their forefathers? Certainly not. Is this recapitulation an attempt to wreak vengeance on the Muslims of today? Again the answer is No. Then what is the purpose of this exercise? As a civilized society, we are duty-bound to ensure that such barbaric acts do not occur in our country again. The best way to effect this is to remind people continually of such ghastly misdeeds. If we do not do this, we will be doing a great disservice to our future generations.

Further, I find it puzzling and disturbing that present day Muslims consider themselves duty-bound to stand up for the crimes perpetrated by their ancestors. All over the world, reconciliation and expression of remorse are the order of the day. President Clinton apologized to the Blacks for slavery, the Australian government expressed regret to the Aborgines and the Swiss apologized to the Jews they did not save during the holocaust. The people who asked for forgiveness, in each of these cases, were not the ones who had committed the crime. These magnanimous gestures were meant to soothe past wounds and dispel the rancor from aggrieved hearts. In contrast to this, the Muslims of India are bent on a path of confrontation, aided and abetted by pseudosecularists that see this as an opportunity for political gain. Is it so hard to give up Ayodhya, especially when it means so much for the Hindus? This is a question every right-thinking Muslim must ask himself or herself.

To those who say that these events belonged to a time gone by and will not occur again, they only have to remember what happened in Afghanistan recently. The Islamic Taliban ordered the destruction of all idols (Buddhist and Hindu) that reflected Afghanistan's rich history. Included among the list of structures destroyed were two statues of a standing Buddha (in Bamiyan) measuring 175 and 200 feet and noted to be among the tallest in the world. Can these destructions be justified as instruments of political conquest?

I end this article by quoting Simon Wiesenthal, the legendary Nazi hunter, “I see what I am doing as a warning to the murderers of tomorrow. A warning that they will never rest in peace.” And that alone is the reason for recalling our unfortunate past: nothing more or nothing less.


1. Frontline Jan 5, 2001
2. The Times of India August 25,2002.
3. India. John Keay. Atlantic Monthly Press. 2000.

Destruction of Hindu temples by Chritians and Muslims

Ptolemy, the Greek geographer (AD 90-168) referred to Mylapore in his books as ‘Maillarpha’ a well known seaport. In 1566 Portuguese Christians demolished the temple and the present temple was rebuilt about 300 years ago. Fragmentary inscriptions from the old temple, still found in the present temple and in St. Thomas Cathedral. Few years back when I visited the Kutub Minar, there was an inscription which says that it was constructed after destroying 27 temples. Similarly wherever Hindus visit, there are evidence of Christian and Muslim barbarism which tried to remove the temples and universities of Hindus throughout India. This historical fact should be kept in mind while writing such editorials as Times of India can help to bring the Ayodhya issue to a peaceful conclusion. Muslims should be made to understand that their ancestors, who invaded India, had razed down our temples, and if they are civilized, should apologise for this barbarism. Present day Hindus are living in a free India, and would like to live with other communities in peace and harmony and with dignity. What we see is Muslim terrorism from Kerala to Kashmir and Christian terrorism in North East and their conversion effort condemning Hinduism throughout India. If the present trend is not stopped, as happened in USA, there will be civil war to stop the disintegration efforts made by Muslims and Christians.

The List of Hindu Temples converted to mosque in AP

A Preliminary Survey of some of the Hindu temples that were converted to mosques and muslim monuments in Andhra Pradesh is given here. Many such muslim construction have used the materials of the Hindu temple after it was destroyed by the muslims. This shows the true nature of the eligion Islam.
Some of the districts have been renamed or newly created. Some places which was under one district is now in another district. Those who read this can point out errors if any.
I. Adilabad District.
Mahur, Masjid in the Fort on the hill. Temple site.
II. Anantpur District.
1. Gooty, Gateway to the Hill Fort. Temple materials used.
2. Kadiri, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
3. Konakondla, Masjid in the bazar. Temple materials used.
4. Penukonda
(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid in the Fort. Converted Temple.
(iii) Sher Khn’s Masjid (1546).38 Converted Temple.
(iv) Dargh of Babayya. Converted ÃŽvara Temple.
(v) Jmi’ Masjid (1664-65). Temple site.
(xi) Dargh of Shh Fakbru’d-Dn (1293-94). Temple site.
5. Tadpatri
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1695-96). Temple site.
(ii) Idgh completed in 1725-26. Temple site.
6. Thummala, Masjid (1674-75). Temple site.
III. Cuddapah District
1. Cuddapah
(i) Bhp Shib-k-Masjid (1692). Temple site.
(ii) Idgh (1717-18). Temple site.
(iii) Bahdur Khn-k-Masjid (1722-23). Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Shh Amnu’d-Dn Ges Darz (1736-37). Temple site.
2. Duvvuru, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Gandikot, Jmi’ Masjid (1690-91). Temple site.
4. Gangapuru, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Gundlakunta, Dastgr Dargh. Temple site.
6. Gurrumkonda, Fort and several other Muslim buildings. Temple materials used.
7. Jammalmaduguu, Jmi’ Masjid (1794-95). Temple site.
8. Jangalapalle, Dargh of Dastgr Swm. Converted Jangam temple.
9. Siddhavatam
(i) Qutb Shh Masjid (restored in 1808). Temple materials use.
(ii) Jmi’ Masjid (1701). Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Bismillh Khn Qdir. Temple materials used.
(iv) Fort and Gateways. Temple materials used.
(v) Chowk-k-Masjid. Temple site.
10. Vutukuru
(i) Masjid at Naligoto. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid at Puttumiyyapeta. Temple site.
IV. East Godavari District.
Bikkavolu, Masjid. Temple materials used.
V. Guntur District.
1. Nizampatnam, Dargh of Shh Haidr (1609). Temple site
2. Vinukonda, Jmi’ Masjid (1640-41). Temple site.
VI. Hyderabad District.
1. Chikalgoda, Masjid (1610). Temple site.
2. Dargah, Dargh of Shh Wal (1601-02). Temple site.
3. Golconda
(i) Jmi’ Masjid on Bl Hissr. Temple site.
(ii) Trmat Masjid. Temple site.
4. Hyderabad
(i) Dargh of Shh Ms Qdir. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid on the Pirulkonda Hill (1690). Temple site.
(iii) Tol Masjid (1671). Temple materials used.
(iv) Dargh of Min Mishk (d. 1680). Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Mu’min Chup in Aliybd (1322-23). Temple site.
(vi) Hj Kaml-k-Masjid (1657). Temple site.
(vii) Begum Masjid (1593). Temple site.
(viii) Dargh of Islm Khn Naqshband. Temple site.
(ix) Dargh of Shh D’d (1369-70). Temple site.
(x) Jmi’ Masjid (1597). Temple site.
4. Maisaram, Masjid built by Aurangzeb from materials of 200 temples demolished after the fall of Golconda.
5. Secunderabad, Qadam RasUl. Temple site.
6. Sheikhpet
(i) Shaikh-k-Masjid (1633-34). Temple site.
(ii) SariwAl Masjid (1678-79). Temple tite.
VII. Karimnagar District.
1. Dharampuri, Masjid (1693). TrikTa Temple site.
2. Elangdal
(i) Mansr Khn-k-Masjid (1525). Temple site.
(ii) Alamgr Masjid (1696). Temple site.
3. Kalesyaram, lamgr Masjid. Temple site.
4. Sonipet, lamgr Masjid. Temple site.
5. Vemalvada, Mazr of a Muslim saint. Temple site.
VIII. Krishna District.
1. Gudimetta, Masjid in the Fort, Temple materials used.
2. Guduru, Jmi’ Masjid (1497). Temple materials used.
3. Gundur, Jmi’ Masjid. Converted temple.
4. Kondapalli
(i) Masjid built in 1482 on the site of a temple after Muhammad Shh BahmanI had slaughtered the Brahmin priests on the advice of Mahmd Gawn, the great Bahman Prime Minister, who exhorted the sultan to become a Ghz by means of this pious performance.
(ii) Mazr of Shh Abdul Razzq. Temple site.
5. Kondavidu
(i) Masjid (1337). Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Barandaula. Temple materials used.
(iii) Qadam Sharf of dam. Converted temple.
6. Machhlipatnam
(i) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Idgh. Temple site.
7. Nandigram, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
8. Pedana, Iama’il-k-Masjid. Temple site.
9. Rajkonda, Masjid (1484). Temple site.
10. Tengda, Masjid. Temple site.
11. Turkpalem, Dargh of Ghlib Shahd. Temple site.
12. Vadpaili, Masjid near NarsiMhaswmn Temple. Temple materials used.
13. Vijaywada, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
IX. Kurnool District.
1. Adoni
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1668-69). Materials of several temples used.
(ii) Masjid on the Hill. Temple materials used.
(iii) Fort (1676-77). Temple materials used.
2. Cumbum
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1649). Temple site.
(ii) Gachinl Masjid (1729-30). Temple site.
3. Havli, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple materials used.
4. Karimuddula, Dargh. Akkadevi Temple materials used.
5. Kottakot, Jmi’ Masjid (1501). Temple site.
6. Kurnool
(i) Pr Shib-k-Gumbad (1637-38). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi’ Masjid (1667). Temple site.
(iii) Ll Masjid (1738-39). Temple site.
7. Pasupala, Kaln Masjid. Temple site.
8. Sanjanmala, Masjid. Temple sites.
9. Siddheswaram, Ashurkhna. Temple materials used.
10. Yadavalli, Mazr and Masjid. Temple sites.
11. Zuhrapur, Dargh of Qdir Shh Bukhr. Temple site.
X. Mahbubnagar District.
1. Alampur, Qal-k-Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Jatprole, Dargh of Sayyid Shh Darwish. Temple materials used.
3. Kodangal
(i) Dargh of Hazrat Nizmu’d-DIn. Temple site.
(ii) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
4. Kundurg, Jmi’ Masjid (1470-71). Temple site.
5. Pargi, Jmi’ Masjid (1460). Temple site.
6. Somasila, Dargh of Kamlu’d-Dn Baba (1642-43) Temple site.
XI. Medak District.
1. Andol, Old Masjid. Temple site.
2. Komatur, Old Masjid. Temple site.
3. Medak
(i) Masjid near Mubrak Mahal (1641). Vishnu Temple site.
(ii) Fort, Temple materials used.
4. Palat, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Patancheru
(i) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Shykh Ibrhm known as Makhdmji (1583). Temple site.
(iii) Ashrufkhna. Temple site.
(iv) Fort (1698). Temple materials used.
XII. Nalgonda District.
1. Devarkonda
(i) Qutb Shh Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Dargh of Sharfu’d-Din (1579). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Qdir Shh Wal (1591). Temple site.
2. Ghazinagar, Masjid (1576-77). Temple site.
3. Nalgonda
(i) Garh Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Latf. Temple site.
(iii) Qutb Shh Masjid (Renovated in 1897). Temple site.
4. Pangal, lamgr Masjid. Temple site.
XIII. Nellore District.
1. Kandukuru, Four Masjids. Temple sites.
2. Nellore, Dargh named Dargmitt. Akkaslvara Temple materials used.
3. Podile, Dargh. Temple site.
4. Udayagiri
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1642-43). Temple materials used.
(ii) Chhot Masjid (1650-51). Temple materials used.
(iii) Fort. Temple materials used.
XIV. Nizambad District.
1. Balkonda
(i) Patthar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Idgh. Temple site.
2. Bodhan
(i) Deval Masjid. Converted Jain temple.
(ii) Patthar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) lamgr Masjid (1654-55). Temple site.
3. Dudki, Ashrufkhna. Temple materials used.
4. Fathullapur, Mu’askar Masjid (1605-06). Temple site.
XV. Osmanabad District.
Ausa, Jmi’ Masjid (1680-81). Temple site.
XVI. Rangareddy District.
Maheshwar, Masjid (1687). Madanna Pandit’s Temple site.
XVII. Srikakulam District
1. Icchapuram, Several Masjids. Temple sites.
2. Kalingapatnam, DargAh of Sayyid Muhammad Madn Awliy (1619-20). Temple materials used.
3. Srikakulam
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1641- 42). Temple site.

(ii) Dargh of Bande Shh Wal (1641- 42). Temple site.

(iii) Atharwl Masjid (1671-72). Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Burhnu’d-Dn Awliy. Temple site.
XVIII. Vishakhapatnam District.
1. Jayanagaram, Dargh. Temple site.
2. Vishakhapatnam, Dargh of Shh Madn. Temple site.
XIX. Warangal District.
Zafargarh, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
XX. West Godavari District.
1. Eluru
(i) Fort. Temple materials used.
(ii) Sawi Masjid. Converted temple.
(iii) Qzi’s House. Somevara Temple materials used.
2. Nidavolu, Masjid. Mahdeva Temple materials used.
3. Rajamundri, Jmi’ Masjid (1324). Converted VeNugoplaswmin Temple.

Hindu Temples converted to mosque in Gujarat

A Preliminary Survey of some of the Hindu temples that were converted to mosques and muslim monuments in Gujarat is given here. Many such muslim construction have used the materials of the Hindu temple after it was destroyed by the muslims. This shows the true nature of the religion, Islam.
Some of the districts have been renamed or newly created. Some places which was under one district is now in another district. Those who read this can point out errors if any.

I. Ahmadabad District.

1. Ahmadabad, Materials of temples destroyed at Asaval, Patan and Chandravati were used in the building of this Muslim city and its monuments. Some of the monuments are listed below :
(i) Palace and Citadel of Bhadra.
(ii) Ahmad Shh-k-Masjid in Bhadra.
(iii) Jmi’ Masjid of Ahmad Shh.
(iv) Haibat Khn-k-Masjid.
(v) Rn Rpmat-k-Masjid.
(vi) Rn B Harr-k-Masjid.
(vii) Malik SraNg-k-Masjid.
(viii) Mahfz Khn-k-Masjid.
(ix) Sayyid lam-k-Masjid.
(x) Pattharwli or Qutb Shh-k-Masjid.
(xi) Sakar Khn-k-Masjid.
(xii) Bb Ll-k-Masjid.
(xiii) Shykh Hasan Muhammad Chisht-k-Masjid.
(xiv) Masjid at Isnpur.
(xv) Masjid and Mazr of Malik Sha’bn.
(xvi) Masjid and Mazr of Rn Spr (Sabarai).
(xvii) Masjid and Mazr of Shh lam at Vatva.
(xviii) Maqbara of Sultn Ahmad Shh I.
2. Dekwara, Masjid (1387). Temple site.
3. Dholka
(i) Masjid and Mazr of Bahlol Khn Ghz. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Barkat Shahd (1318). Temple site.
(iii) Tanka or Jmi’ Masjid (1316). Temple materials used.
(iv) Hilll Khn Qz-k-Masjid (1333). Temple materials used.
(v) Khrn Masjid (1377). Converted Bvan Jinlaya Temple.
(vi) Kl Bazar Masjid (1364). Temple site.
4. Isapur, Masjid. Temple site.
5. Mandal
(i) Sayyid-k-Masjid (1462). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
6. Paldi, Patthar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
7. Ranpur, Jmi’ Masjid (1524-25). Temple site.
8. Sarkhej
(i) Dargh of Shykh Ahmad Khatt Ganj Baksh (d. 1445). Temple materials used.
(ii) Maqbara of Sultn Mahmd BegaD. Temple materials used.
9. Usmanpur, Masjid and Mazr of Sayyid Usmn. Temple site.

II. Banaskantha District.
1. Haldvar, Mazr of Ln Shh and Gjar Shh. Temple site.
2. Halol
(i) Ek Mnr-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) PNch MuNhD-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Jmi’ Masjid (1523-24). Temple site.
3. Malan, Jmi’ Masjid (1462). Temple materials used.

III. Baroda District.
1. Baroda
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1504-05) Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Pr Amr Thir with its Ghz Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Pr GhoD (1421-23). Temple site.
2. Dabhoi
(i) Dargh of PNch Bb. Temple materials used.
(ii) Mazr of M Dhokr. Temple materials used.
(iii) Fort. Temple materials used.
(iv) Hira, Baroda, MabuDa and NandoDi Gates. Temple materials used.
(v) MahuNDi Masjid. Temple materials used.
3. Danteshwar, Mazr of Qutbu’d-Dn. Temple site.
4. Sankheda, Masjid (1515-16). Temple site.

IV. Bharuch District.
1. Amod, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple materials used.
2. Bharuch
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1321). Brahmanical and Jain temple materials used.
(ii) Ghaznav Masjid (1326). Temple site.
(iii) Idgh (1326). Temple site.
(iv) ChunwD Masjid (1458). Temple site.
(v) Qz-k-Masjid (1609). Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Makhdm Sharfu’d-Dn (1418). Temple site.
3. Jambusar, Jmi’ Masjid (1508-09). Temple site.
4. Tankaria, BaD or Jmi’ Masjid (1453). Temple site.

V. Bhavnagar District.
1. Botad, Mazr of Pr Hamr Khan. Temple site.
2. Tolaja, Idgh and Dargh of Hasan Pr. Temple site.
3. Ghoda, Masjid (1614). Temple site.

VI. Jamnagar District.
1. Amran, Dargh of Dawal Shh. Temple materials used.
2. Bet Dwarka, Dargh of Pr Kirmn. Temple site.
3. Dwarka, Masjid (1473). Temple site.

VII. Junagarh District.
1. Junagarh
(i) BorwD Masjid (1470). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi’ Masjid in Uparkot. Jain Temple site.
(iii) Masjid at M GaDhech. Converted Jain temple.
2. Loliyana, Dargh of Madr Shh. Temple site.
3. Kutiana, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
4. Mangrol
(i) Rahmat Masjid. Temple materials used.
(ii) Jmi’ Masjid (1382-83). Temple materials used.
(iii) JnI Jail-k-Masjid (1385-86). Temple site.
(iv) Revl Masjid (1386-87). Temple materials used.
(v) Masjid at Bandar. Temple materials used.
(vi) Dargh near Revli Masjid. Temple materials used.
(vii) Mazr of Sayyid Sikandar alias Makhdm Jahniy (1375). Temple materials used.
(viii) GaDhi Gate. Temple materials used.
5. Somnath Patan
(i) Bzr Masjid (1436). Temple site.
(ii) Chndn Masjid (1456). Temple site.
(iii) Qz-k-Masjid (1539). Temple site.
(iv) PathnwaDi Masjid (1326). Temple site.
(v) Muhammad Jamdr-k-Masjid (1420). Temple site.
(vi) MiThshh Bhang-k-Masjid (1428). Temple site.
(vii) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple materials used.
(viii) Masjid made out of the SomanAtha Temple of Kumrapla.
(ix) Masjid at the back of the Somantha Temple. Converted temple.
(x) Mot Darwza. Temple materials used.
(xi) Mpur Masjid on the way to Veraval. Temple materials used.
(xii) Dargh of Manglri Shh near Mpur Masjid. Temple materials used.
(xiii) Shahd Mahmd-k-Masjid (1694). Temple site.
6. Vanasthali, Jmi’ Masjid. Converted VAmana Temple.
7. Veraval
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1332). Temple site.
(ii) Nagna Masjid (1488). Temple site.
(iii) Chowk Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) MNDv Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Mazr of Sayyid Ishq or Maghrib Shh. Temple site.
(vi) Dargh of Muhammad bin Hj Giln. Temple site.

VIII. Kachchh District.
1. Bhadreshwar
(i) Solkhamb Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) ChhoT Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(iii) Dargh of Pr Ll Shhbz. Jain Temple materials used.
2. Bhuj
(i) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Gumbad of Bb Guru. Temple site.
3. Munra or MunDra, Seaport built from the materials of Jain temples of Bhadreshwar which were demolished by the Muslims; its Safed Masjid which can be seen from afar was built from the same materials.

IX. Kheda District.
1. Kapadwani
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1370-71). Temple site.
(ii) Sm Shahd-k-Masjid (1423). Temple site.
2. Khambhat
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1325). Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) Masjid in Qaziwara (1326). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Undipet (1385). Temple site.
(iv) Sadi-i-Awwal Masjid (1423). Temple site.
(v) Fujr-k-Masjid (1427). Temple site.
(vi) Mazr of Umar bin Ahmad Kzrn. Jain Temple materials used.
(vii) Mazr of Qbil Shh. Temple site.
(viii) Mazr of Shykh Al Jaulq known as Parwz Shh (1498). Temple site.
(ix) Mazr of Shh Bahlol Shahd. Temple site.
(x) Maqbara of Ikhtyru’d-Daula (1316). Temple site.
(xi) IdgAh (1381-82). Temple site.
3. Mahuda, Jmi’ Masjid (1318). Temple site.
4. Sojali, Sayyid Mubrak-k-Masjid. Temple site.

X. Mehsana District.
1. Kadi
(i) Masjid (1384). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1583). Temple site.
2. Kheralu, Jmi’ Masjid (1409-10). Temple site.
3. Modhera, Rayadi Masjid. Temple site.
4. Munjpur, Jmi’ Masjid (1401-02). Temple site.
5. Patan
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1357). Temple materials used.
(ii) Pht Mahalla or Pinjar Kot-k-Masjid (1417). Temple site.
(iii) Bzr-k-Masjid (1490). Temple site.
(iv) Masjid in a field that was the Sahasralinga Talav. Temple materials used.
(v) Masjid and Dargh of Makhdm Husmu’d-Dn Chisht, disciple of Shykh Nizmu’d-Dn Awliya of Delhi. Temple materials used.
(vi) GmD Masjid (1542). Temple site.
(vii) RangrezoN-k-Masjid (1410-11). Temple site.
(viii) Dargh of Shykh Muhammad Turk Kshgar (1444-45). Temple site.
(ix) Dargh of Shykh Fard. Converted temple.
6. Sami, Jmi’ Masjid (1404). Temple site.
7. Sidhpur, Jmi’ Masjid. Built on the site and with the materials of the Rudra-mahlaya Temple of Siddharja JayasiMha.
8. Una, Dargh of Hazrat Shh Pr. Temple site.
9. Vijapur
(i) Kaln Masjid (1369-70). Temple site.
(ii) Mansr Masjid. Temple site.

XI. Panch Mahals District.
1. Champaner
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1524). Temple site.
(ii) Bhadra of Mahmd BegD. Temple site.
(iii) Shahr-k-Masjid. Temple site.
2. Godhra, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Pavagadh
(i) Masjid built on top of the Dev Temple.
(ii) PNch MuNhD Masjid. Temple site.
(iii) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site,
4. Rayania, Masjid (1499-1500). Temple site.

XII. Rajkot District.
1. Jasdan, Dargh of Kl Pr. Temple materials used.
2. Khakhrechi
(i) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Kaml Shh Pr. Temple site.
3. Mahuva, Idgah (1418). Temple site.
4. Malia, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
5. Morvi, Masjid (1553). Temple site.
6. Santrampur, Masjid (1499-1500). Temple site.

XIII. Sabarkantha District.
1. Hersel, Masjid (1405). Temple site.
2. Himmatnagar, Moti-Mohlat Masjid in Nani Vorwad (1471). Temple site.
3. Prantij
(i) Fath or Tekrewl Masjid (1382). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Sikandar Shh Shahd (d. 1418). Temple materials used.

XIV. Surat District.
1. Navasari
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1340). Temple site.
(ii) Shh Masjid. Temple site.
2. Rander, The Jains who predominated in this town were expelled by Muslims and all temples of the former were converted into mosques. The following mosques stand on the site of and/or are constructed with materials from those temples:
(i) Jmi’ Masjid.
(ii) Nit Naur Masjid.
(iii) Min-k-Masjid.
(iv) Khrw Masjid.
(v) Munsh-k-Masjid.
3. Surat
(i) Mirz Smi-k-Masjid (1336). Temple site.
(ii) Nau Sayyid Shib-k-Masjid and the nine Mazrs on Gopi Talav in honour of nine Ghzs. Temple sites.
(iii) Fort built in the reign of Farrukh Siyr. Temple materials used.
(iv) Gopi Talav (1718). Temple materials used.
4. Tadkeshwar, Jmi’ Masjid (1513-14). Temple site.

XV. Surendranagar District.
1. Sara, DarbargaDh-k-Masjid (1523). Temple site.
2. Vad Nagar, Masjid (1694). Stands on the site of the Htakevara
Mahdeva temple.
3. Wadhwan, Jmi’ Masjid (1439). Temple site.

Hindu Temples converted to mosque in Karnataka

A Preliminary Survey of some of the Hindu temples that were converted to mosques and muslim monuments in Karnataka is given here. Many such muslim construction have used the materials of the Hindu temple after it was destroyed by the muslims. This shows the true nature of the religion Islam.
Some of the districts have been renamed or newly created. Some places which was under one district is now in another district. Those who read this can point out errors if any.
I. Bangalore District.
1. Dodda-Ballapur, Dargh of Muhiu’d-Dn Chisht of Ajodhan (d. 1700). Temple materials used.
2. Hoskot
(i) Dargh of Saball Shib. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Qsim Shib. Converted temple.

II. Belgaum District.
1. Belgaum
(i) Masjid-i-Safa in the Fort (1519). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi’ Masjid (1585-86). Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Badru’d-Dn Shh in the Fort (1351-52). Temple site.
2. Gokak, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Hukeri
(i) Mn Sahib-k-Dargh (1567-68). Temple site.
(ii) Kl Masjid (1584). Temple materials used.
4. Kudachi
(i) Dargh of Makhdm Shh Wal. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Shykh Muhammad Sirju’d-Dn Prdd. Temple site.
5. Madbhavi, Masjid. Å iva Temple materials used.
6. Raibag, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site,
7. Sampgaon, Masjid. Temple site.

III. Bellary District.
1. Bellary, Masjid built by Tp Sultn (1789-90). Temple site.
2. Hampi, Masjid and Idgh in the ruins of Vijayanagar. Temple materials used.
3. Hospet, Masjid in Bazar Street built by Tp Sultn (1795-96). Temple site.
4. Huvinhadgalli, Fort. Temple materials used.
5. Kanchagarabelgallu, Dargh of Husain Shh. Temple site.
6. Kudtani, Dargh. Durgevara Temple materials used.
7. Sandur, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
8. Siruguppa, Ld Khn Masjid (1674). Temple site.
9. Sultanpuram, Masjid on the rock. Temple site.

IV. Bidar District.
1. Bidar, Ancient Hindu city transformed into a Muslim capital. The following monuments stand on temple sites and/or temple materials have been used in their construction:
(i) Sol Khamb Masjid (1326-27).
(ii) Jmi’ Masjid of the Bahmans.
(iii) Mukhtr Khn-k-Masjid (1671).
(iv) Kl Masjid (1694).
(v) Masjid west of Kl Masjid (1697-98).
(vi) Farrah-Bgh Masjid, 3 km outside the city (1671).
(vii) Dargh of Hazrat Khallu’llh at Ashtr (1440).
(viii) Dargh of Shh Shamsu’d-Dn Muhammad Qdir known as Multn Pdshh.
(ix) Dargh of Shh Waliu’llh-al-Husain.
(x) Dargh of Shh Zainu’l-Dn Ganj Nishn.
(xi) Dargh and Masjid of Mahbb Subhn.
(xii) Mazr of Ahmad Shh Wal at Ashtr (1436).
(xiii) Mazr of Shh Abdul Azz (1484).
(xiv) Takht Mahal.
(xv) Gagan Mahal.
(xvi) Madrasa of Mahmd Gawn.
2. Chandpur, Masjid (1673-74). Temple site.
3. Chillergi, Jmi’ Masjid (1381). Temple site.
4. Kalyani, Capital of the Later Chlukyas. All their temples were either demolished or converted into mosques.
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1323). Temple site.
(ii) Masjid (1406). Temple site.
(iii) Masjid in Mahalla Shahpur (1586-87). Temple site.
(iv) Dargh of Maulna Yqb. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Sayyid Pr Psh. Temple site.
(vi) Fort Walls and Towers. Temple materials used.
(vii) Nawb’s Bungalow. Temple materials used.
5. Kohir
(i) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Darghs of two Muslim saints. Temple sites.
6. Shahpur, Masjid (1586-87). Temple site.
7. Udbal, Jmi’ Masjid (1661-62). Temple site.

V. Bijapur District.
1. Afzalpur, Mahal Masjid. Trikta Temple materials used.
2. Badami, Second Gateway of the Hill Fort. Vishnu Temple materials
3. Bekkunal, Dargh outside the village. Temple materials used.
4. Bijapur, Ancient Hindu city transformed into a Muslim capital. The
following monuments are built on temple sites and/or temple materials
have been used in their construction:
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1498-99).
(ii) Karmu’d-Dn-k-Masjid in the rk (1320-21).
(iii) ChhoT Masjid on way to Mangoli Gate.
(iv) Khwja Sambal-k-Masjid (1522-13).
(v) Makka Masjid.
(vi) AnD Masjid.
(vii) Zangr Masjid.
(viii) Bukhr Masjid (1536-37).
(ix) Dakhn Idgah (1538-39).
(x) Masjid and Rauza of Ibrhm II Adil Shh (1626).
(xi) Gol Gumbaz or the Rauza of Muhammad Adil Shh.
(xii) JoD-Gumbad.
(xiii) Nau-Gumbad.
(xiv) Dargh of Shh Ms Qdiri.
(xv) Gagan Mahal.
(xvi) Mihtar Mahal.
(xvii) Asar Mahal.
(xvii) Anand Mahal and Masjid (1495).
(xviii) St Manzil.
(xix) rk or citadel.
(xx) Mazr of Pr Ma’bar Khandyat.
(xxi) Mazr of Pr Jumn.
(xxii) Dargh of Shh Mrnji Shamsu’l-Haq Chisht on Shahpur Hill.
5. Hadginhali, Dargh. Temple materials used.
6. Horti, Masjid. Temple materials used.
7. Inglesvara, Muhiu’d-Dn Shib-k-Masjid. Munip Samdhi materials used.
8. Jirankalgi, Masjid. Temple materials used.
9. Kalleeri, Masjid near the village Chawdi. Keavadeva Temple materials used.
10. Mamdapur
(i) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Mazr of Kaml Shib. Temple site.
(iii) Mazr of Sadle Shib of Makka. Temple site.
11. Naltvad, Masjid (1315). Temple materials used.
12. Pirapur, Dargh. Temple site.
13. Salvadigi, Masjid. Temple materials used.
14. Sarur, Masjid. Temple materials used.
15. Segaon, Dargh. Temple site.
16. Takli, Masjid. Temple materials used.
17. Talikota
(i) Jmi’ Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
(ii) PNch Pr-k-Masjid and Ganji-i-Shahdn. Temple site.
18. Utagi, Masjid (1323). Temple site.

VI. Chickmanglur District.
Baba Budan, Mazr of Dd Hayt Mr Qalandar. Datttreya Temple site.

VII. Chitaldurg District.
Harihar, Masjid on top of Harhareshvara Temple.

VIII. Dharwad District.
1. Alnavar, Jmi’ Masjid. Jain Temple materials used.
2. Bankapur
(i) Masjid (1538-39). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi’ Masjid (1602-03). Temple site.
(iii) Graveyard with a Masjid. Temple site.
(iv) Dongar-k-Masjid. Temple site.
(v) Dargh of Shh Alu’d-Dn-Qdir. Temple site.
(vi) Fort (1590-91). Temple materials used,
3. Balur, Masjid. Temple materials used.
4. Dambal, Mazr of Shh Abdu’llh Wal. Temple materials used.
5. Dandapur, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple materials used.
6. Dharwad, Masjid on Mailarling Hill. Converted Jain Temple.
7. Hangal
(i) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid in the Fort. Temple site.
8. Hubli, 17 Masjids built by Aurangzeb in 1675 and after Temple sites.
9. Hulgur
(i) Dargh of Sayyid Shh Qdir. Temple site.
(ii) Masjid near the above Dargh. Temple site.
10. Lakshmeshwar, Kl Masjid. Temple site.
11. Misrikot, Jmi’ Masjid (1585-86). Temple site.
12. Mogha, Jmi’ Masjid. dityadeva Temple materials used.
13. Ranebennur, Qal, Masjid (1742). Temple site.
14. Savanur
(i) Jmi’ Masjid reconstructed in 1847-48. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Khairu’llh Shh Bdshh. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh and Masjid of Shh Kaml. Temple site.

IX. Gulbarga District.
1. Chincholi, Dargh. Temple site.
2. Dornhalli, Masjid. Temple site.
3. Firozabad
(i) Jmi’ Masjid (1406). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Shh Khalfatu’r-Rahmn Qdir (d. 1421). Temple site.
4. Gobur, Dargh. Ratnarya Jinlaya Temple materials used.
5. Gogi
(i) Araba’a Masjid (1338). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Pr Chand, Husain (1454). Temple site.
(iii) Chill of Shh Habbu’llh (1535-36). Temple site.
6. Gulbarga, Ancient Hindu city converted into a Muslim capital and the following among other monuments built on temple sites and/or with temple materials:
(i) Kaln Masjid in Mahalla Mominpura (1373).
(ii) Masjid in Shah Bazar (1379).
(iii) Jmi’ Masjid in the Fort (1367).
(iv) Masjid-i-Langar in the Mazr of Hj Zaida.
(v) Masjid near the Farman Talab (1353-54).
(vi) Dargh of Sayyid Muhammad Husain Band, Nawz Ges Darz Chisht,disciple of Shykh Nasru’d-Dn Mahmd ChrAgh-i-Dihl.
(vii) Mazr of Shykh Muhammad Sirju’d-Dn Junaid.
(viii) Mazr of Hj Zaida of Maragh (1434)
(ix) Mazr of Sayyid Husainu’d-Dn Tigh-i-Barhna (naked sword).
(x) Fort Walls and Gates.
7. Gulsharam, Dargh and Masjid of Shh Jall Husain (1553). Temple site.
8. Malkhed, Dargh of Sayyid Ja’far Husain in the Fort. Temple site.
9. Sagar
(i) Dargh of Sf Sarmast Chisht, disciple of Nzmu’d-Dn Awlya of Delhi. Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Munawwar Bdshh. Temple site.
(iii) shur Khna Masjid (1390-91). Temple site.
(iv) Fort (1411-12). Temple materials used.
10. Seram, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple materials used.
11. Shah Bazar, Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
12. Shahpur
(i) Dargh of Ms Qdir (1667-68). Temple site.
(ii) Dargh of Muhammad Qdir (1627). Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of IbrAhIm Qdir. Temple site.
13. Yadgir
(i) Afthn Masjid (1573). Temple site.
(ii) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.

X. Kolar District.
1. Mulbagal, Dargh of Hyder Wal. Temple site.
2. Nandi, Masjid east of the village. Temple site.

XI. Mandya District.
1. Pandavapur, Masjid-i-Ala. Temple site.
2. Srirangapatnam, Jmi’ Masjid built by Tp Sultn (1787). Stands on the site of the janeya Temple.

XII. Mysore District.
Tonnur, Mazr said to be that of Sayyid Slr Mas’d (1358). Temple materials used.

XIII. North Kanara District.
1. Bhatkal, Jmi’ Masjid (1447-48). Temple site.
2. Haliyal, Masjid in the Fort. Temple materials used.

XIV. Raichur District.
1. Jaladurga, Dargh of Muhammad Sarwar. Temple site.
2. Kallur, Two Masjids. Temple sites.
3. Koppal
(i) Jmi’ Masjid. Temple site.
(ii) AraboMasjid. Temple site.
(iii) Dargh of Sailn Psh. Temple site.